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Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It consists of more than seventeen thousand islands, including Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, and New Guinea.
Regional languages: Over 700 languages
Currency: Indonesian rupiah
Population: 267,7 million (2018)


Bali was inhabited around 2000 BCE by¬†Austronesian people¬†who migrated originally from the island of Taiwan to Southeast Asia and¬†Oceania¬†through¬†Maritime Southeast Asia.¬†Culturally and linguistically, the Balinese are closely related to the people of the Indonesian archipelago, Malaysia, the Philippines and Oceania.¬†Stone tools dating from this time have been found near the village of Cekik in the island’s west.

In ancient Bali, nine Hindu sects existed, namely Pasupata, Bhairawa, Siwa Shidanta, Vaishnava, Bodha, Brahma, Resi, Sora and Ganapatya. Each sect revered a specific deity as its personal Godhead.

Inscriptions from 896 and 911 do not mention a king, until 914, when Sri Kesarivarma is mentioned. They also reveal an independent Bali, with a distinct dialect, where¬†Buddhism¬†and¬†Sivaism¬†were practised simultaneously.¬†Mpu Sindok‘s great-granddaughter,¬†Mahendradatta¬†(Gunapriyadharmapatni), married the Bali king¬†Udayana Warmadewa¬†(Dharmodayanavarmadeva) around 989, giving birth to¬†Airlangga¬†around 1001. This marriage also brought more¬†Hinduism¬†and Javanese culture to Bali. Princess Sakalendukirana appeared in 1098. Suradhipa reigned from 1115 to 1119, and Jayasakti from 1146 until 1150. Jayapangus appears on inscriptions between 1178 and 1181, while Adikuntiketana and his son Paramesvara in 1204.

Subak irrigation system

Balinese culture was strongly influenced by Indian, Chinese, and particularly¬†Hindu¬†culture, beginning around the 1st century AD. The name¬†Bali dwipa¬†(“Bali island”) has been discovered from various inscriptions, including the Blanjong pillar inscription written by¬†Sri Kesari Warmadewa¬†in 914 AD and mentioning¬†Walidwipa. It was during this time that the people developed their complex irrigation system¬†subak¬†to grow rice in¬†wet-field cultivation. Some religious and cultural traditions still practised today can be traced to this period.

The Hindu¬†Majapahit Empire¬†(1293‚Äď1520 AD) on eastern¬†Java¬†founded a Balinese colony in 1343. The uncle of¬†Hayam Wuruk¬†is mentioned in the charters of 1384‚Äď86. Mass Javanese immigration to Bali occurred in the next century when the¬†Majapahit Empire¬†fell in 1520.¬†Bali’s government then became an independent collection of Hindu kingdoms which led to a Balinese national identity and major enhancements in culture, arts, and economy. The nation with various kingdoms became independent for up to 386 years until 1906 when the Dutch subjugated and repulsed the natives for economic control and took it over.

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